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2015年韩素音翻译比赛英译汉难句译析

【英语原文】

(2)Lit Theory is supposed to be the class where you sit at the back of the room with every other jaded sophomore wearing skinny jeans, thick-framed glasses, an ironic tee-shirt and over-sized retro headphones, just waiting for lecture to be over so you can light up a Turkish Gold and walk to lunch while listening to Wilco. (3)That’s pretty much the way I spent the course, too: through structuralism, formalism, gender theory, and post-colonialism, I was far too busy shuffling through my Ipod to see what the patriarchal world order of capitalist oppression had to do with Ethan Frome. (4)But when we began to study postmodernism, something struck a chord with me and made me sit up and look anew at the seemingly blasé college-aged literati of which I was so self-consciously one.

【原文解读】(2) is supposed to…具有肯定性判断语气,“where…to Wilco”为定于从句,起描写作用补充说明the class的具体情况。(3)that后指冒号后的句子,其中through是struggle through的省略形式,意为“make a strenuous effort against opposition”;busy shuffling through意为“忙于浏览”,too…to see:太…以致不能弄清….(4)strike a chord with sb:打动某人的心弦,引起…的共鸣。Blasé与(2)jaded属于近义词,college-aged literati与(2) sophomore属于近义词,这种现象Halliday称为词汇衔接模式,其中literati属于复数。college-aged literati of which I was so self-consciously one=I was self conscious that I was one of college literati.

【汉语译文】

文学理论应该说是这么一堂课:你跟其他所有那些百无聊赖的大二学生一起坐在教室后面,他们头戴黑框眼镜,下穿紧身牛仔裤,上套体恤衫,耳塞复古式耳机,等待着下课,这样就可以点上一支金骆驼牌香烟(土耳其金),一路听着威尔克专辑(Wilco)去吃午餐。这样打发课堂的方式也不错:一边耐着性子听结构主义,形式主义,性别理论和后殖民主义,一边忙着搜索着苹果音乐,管他资本主义压迫下的男权世界秩序与伊登·弗洛姆(Ethan Frome)有何干系。而当我们开始研究后现代主义时,有些东西也戳动了我的心弦,让我坐直身子去重新审视那些看似困倦不堪的,只有大学适龄的文科学生,不好意思,我也是其中一员。

【翻译津要】(1)此句翻译时,并没有按语法转换式地将英语状语in Lit Theory前移为状语,译为“我从没指望在文学理论课上获得对…...和……的新认识。”(2) is supposed to be译为:应该说是,并增益特指性过渡词“这么”,从而避免将后面的长定语从句内容置于中心词之前;定语从句部分具有很强的描写性,为了形象生动,将wearing分别同词异译为:“头戴”,“下穿”,“上套”,“耳塞”。(3)英语后指代词that译为汉语既可前指又可后指的代词“这”; (struggling) through译为“耐着性子听”,并增益伴随性连接词“一边……一边……”;too…to see…结构,并未按词典释义式译为“太……以致不能弄清……与……的关系”,而是刈分成两个小句,前部分译为“忙着浏览….”,后部分译为“管他…有何干系”。(4)struck a chord with me译为“戳动了我的心弦”,literati本文译为“文科学生”,look anew at译为“重新审视”,self-consciously此类带有-ly后缀的副词,都可以还原为形容词来处理,此句中刈分为小句,翻译时不按词典释义译为“害羞,怕难为情的”译为“不好意思”。

【英语原文】

(5)According to my textbook, the problem with defining postmodernism is that it’s impossible. 6)The difficulty is that it is so...post. (7)It defines itself so negatively against what came before it – naturalism, romanticism and the wild revolution of modernism – that it’s sometimes hard to see what it actually is. (8)It denies that anything can be explained neatly or even at all. (9)It is parodic, detached, strange, and sometimes menacing to traditionalists who do not understand it. (10)Although it arose in the post-war west (the term was coined in 1949), the generation that has witnessed its ascendance has yet to come up with an explanation of what postmodern attitudes mean for the future of culture or society. (11)The subject intrigued me because, in a class otherwise consumed by dead-letter theories, postmodernism remained an open book, tempting to the young and curious.

【原文解读】(5) the problem with defining postmodernism is that it’s impossible=by definition, the problem is that it is impossible to define the word “postmodernism”。(6)对上一句给出解释,解释为什么很难对postmodernism下定义,其原因在于这个单词中的post,因为modernism非常好理解,但一旦加上前缀post就不好理解了,所以作者说 “The difficulty is that it is so...post”,其中的that it is so…是思维过程中非严密逻辑所产生的赘词,省略号“…”表示so与post没有必然联系,所以不能译为“如此的‘后’”。(7)句中的it是指(5)句中的postmodernism。negatively against指对….加以否定。(8-9)中it都是指postmodernism;(9)to traditionalists要与前面四个形容词parodic, detached, strange, menacing都有关联性。(10)讲述postmodernism的起源及其背景。(11)讲述postmodernism吸引自己的原因:开放的,没有空洞僵化的定义。

【汉语译文】

 (5)我的教科书告诉我,后现代主义的问题就在于很难对其下定义。(6)难就难在一个“后”字。(7)这个字本身是用来对之前的一些东西(观念)的否定,如自然主义,浪漫主义,疯狂的现代主义革命——因此,有时很难弄清它到底指的是什么。(8)后现代认为凡事皆难以解释得很清楚,甚至根本无法解释。(9)对不解其意的传统主义者来说,它就是戏仿、超然、陌生、有时还是威胁。(10)虽说该词产生于战后的西方(1949年才造出的词),但见证过其繁盛时期的那代人至今都没有做出一个解释,解释他们对文化或社会的未来所持的后现代态度到底是何意?(11)这个问题倒是激起了我的好奇,因为在满是空洞理论的课堂上,后现代主义始终是开放性的,这对年轻人和猎奇的人来说极有诱惑力。

【翻译津要】(5)为了通俗将介词短语according to刈分小句来翻译;(6) “The difficulty is that it is so...post”中的that it is so…是思维过程中非严密逻辑所产生的赘词,可以“遗而不译”;so...post可以处理成“这个……‘后’字” 。(7-8-9-10)中的it都是指postmodernism,汉译时还原为名词。(9) to traditionalists who do not understand it汉译时前移。(10) has yet to come up with...容易误译为“不得不提出”; an explanation of翻译时刈分为两个小句。(11)the subject指上一句宾语从句what...or society所涉及到的问题,故译为“这个问题”。

【英语原文】

(13)(a)In many ways, (b)as a college-aged generation, (c)we are also extremely post: post-Cold War, post-industrial, post-baby boom, post-9/11...(14)(a)at one point in his famous essay, “Postmodernism, or the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism,”literary critic Frederic Jameson even calls us “post-literate.” (15)We are a generation that is riding on the tail-end of a century of war and revolution that toppled civilizations, overturned repressive social orders, and left us with more privilege and opportunity than any other society in history. (16)Ours could be an era to accomplish anything.

【原文解读】(13)可刈分为三个命题,(a-b)为介词命题,其中as引导同位语补充说明We的身份(语法书上通常称为介词短语作状语,笔者更远称之为同位语引导,类似介词还有of,如the city of Beijing);(c)为形容词命题,只要结合(13b)中的generation就不难理解:此句应当是承上省略句:we are also (a generation of) extremely post-:....。(14)不难理解。(15)(16)都是SVC+定语(从句)的句型,不难理解。

【汉语译文】

(13)(a)在许多方面,(b)我们这代大学适龄的人,(c)也是极端的后字辈:后冷战,后工业,后婴儿潮,后9/11......。(14)文学批评家弗雷德里克·詹姆森在其著名论文《后现代主义,或晚期资本主义的文化逻辑》某个地方甚至把我们叫作“后文青”。(15)我们这代人正好赶上了这个充满了战争与革命的世纪末期:颠覆文明,推翻了令人压抑的社会秩序,赋予了我们的前所未有的特权和机会。(16)我们这个时代可以说是无所不能的时代。

【翻译津要】(13b)为介词命题,(13b)同位语译为汉语同位语格式:本位语+这(个/些/代)+同位语,故有此译;(13c)看似简单,其实最难翻译,不能译成:我们也是极端的“后”......。(14)中的post-literate可译为:后学者,后文人,后文艺知识,考虑到整篇文章都在讨论college-age generation,笔者译为“后文青(即后文艺青年)”。(15-16)为特殊句型中的定语(从句),此类句型的翻译详见拙作《英汉互译教程》(颜林海,2015:175-178)。

【英语原文

(25)We are a story seemingly without direction or theme, structure or meaning – a generation defined negatively against what came before us. (26)(a)When Al Gore once said “It’s the combination of narcissism and nihilism that really defines postmodernism,” (b)he might as well have been echoing his entire generation’s critique of our own. (27)(a)We are a generation (b)for whom even revolution seems trite, and (c)therefore as fair a target for bland imitation (d)as anything else. (28)We are the generation of the Che Geuvera tee-shirt.

【原文解读】(25)讲述我们后现代人是什么样的一代人。(26a)作者引用Al Gore的话,并对Al Gore(26b)的话作出反驳性评述,体现在might as well一短语上,此短语常常用来反驳别人的观点,通常带有责备的意味。(27)作者在对自己这代人的认识,同时又是在继续反驳Al Gore的观点,其中 anything else 就是上文(22)中罗列的一系列平凡得不能再平凡的事情。(28)句实际上对(27)加以举例说明,言外之意是,我们喜欢穿Che Geuvera tee-shirt,并不意味着,我们这代人就一定要象Che Geuvera那样热情澎湃地革命,因为革命对我们这代人来说似乎太trite了。

【汉语译文】

 (25)我们就是一个看似没有方向或主题,没有结构或意义的传奇,我们这代人可以界定为对以前的一切持否定态度的一代人。(26)阿·戈尔塞曾经说:“把自恋和虚无结合起来才能真正界定后现代主义,” 这不妨说是他这一代人面对我们这一代人的批评做出了自己的回应。(27) 对(a)我们这代人来说,(b)即使是革命似乎也激不起我们的兴趣,(c)革命好像(d)和其他平淡无奇的模仿对象别无二致。 (28)我们这代人就是喜欢穿切·格瓦拉体恤衫(的一代人)。

【翻译津要】(25)为特殊句型中的定语(从句)的翻译。(26)might as well译为:不妨说是。(27)也是特殊句型中的定语(从句)翻译,此句绝对不能将定语译为定语,如果译为“我们是即使革命对我们来说也似乎显得很渺小的,因此与任何其他东西一样是一个平淡无奇的模仿对象的一代人”,那就不知何意了。其中fair意为:free from favoritism or self-interest or bias or deception,即既无特别地喜好,也无特别的偏见,故译为:和...别无二致。(28)为特殊句型中的定语(从句)的翻译。